The Witness of the Stars

By E.W. Bullinger

Edited by J.E Bradburn

The Apocalypse has been branded by the enemies of revealed truth, as a sacred fiction; and the very early Christians had to bear the charge of Pagans that on account of there being such a resemblance between it and the worship of the SUN, as Tertullian says, they (the Christians) were only looked upon as another sect of sun-worshippers, and that the construction of the book, and the symbols employed, are but borrowed ideas from Pagan Mysteries.

The conditions under which the apostle received these unfolding’s as to himself, and the manner of presentation—by word and scenically portrayed—are said to after the same order and with the same formula as that used by the hierophant (somebody who interprets and explains obscure and mysterious matters, especially sacred doctrines or mysteries) in his dealings with the aspirant (seeking or hoping to attain something) as he goes through the ordeal of initiation into those mysteries.

But this, instead of being a difficulty, is really a help to the understanding of the book, when we take into account the conditions of the period at which it was written, and the purpose God had in view in making this the closing book of Inspiration; for it not only reflected upon the idolatry then prevailing, but looked on to the great apostasy of the last days when that idolatry shall through Satanic energy again prevail and become the established religion of humanity.

There is such a thing as Divine irony. It is used with great effect when Elijah confronts the priests of Baal. So, here, the priests of Baal are once more to be met; and they are challenged with their own weapons. When Jehovah was about to interfere on His people’s behalf, and accomplish their deliverance from the tyranny of Pharaoh, He spake thus to Moses, that not only man and beast should suffer, but “against all the gods of Egypt I will execute judgement. I AM JEHOHVAH” (Exodus 12:12 KJV) It will be seen that every plague that was sent pointed to some characteristic quality or attribute supposed to belong to their gods, or to prove their impotence in what they professed to control.

This but foreshadows the days in which John was to prophesy. When established religion will be set up in a more blasphemous and defiant form, it will be not only be the worship of demons—gods—and departed heroes; but also a living MAN who shall declare that he is GOD; at the same time blaspheming the God of Heaven. Then it is that we see the very weapons of their false philosophy turned against the foe to their eternal shame.

God graciously gave to Moses the evidence of the power He was about to delegate to him and also to Aaron in the first sign before they went unto Pharaoh, when the rod which was cast on the ground became a serpent.

This is a well-recognised performance of all magicians to the present day. When they both went into Pharaoh with the magicians, every man’s rod did the same, but Aaron’s rod swallowed up their rods. To the king it was but a performance of another magician. This is an instance of the very weapons of the magicians’ art being used against them. In the case of the sixth plague it is equally evident, for according to Gleig quoted in The Philosophy of the Plan of Salvation, “There were several altars upon which human sacrifices were occasionally offered when the desired to propitiate (win someone’s favour) Typhon (the serpent) the Evil Principle.” The victims were burned, their ashes gathered, and the priests cast them into the air in order that evil might be averted from every place to which they were wafted. Moses does the same; but affliction followed to King and people.

Then follows a blow against the worship of Osiris and Isis—the Sun and the Moon—who were supposed to control the elements. Jehovah strikes a blow against such wicked pretensions, and for three days the place is wrapped in “darkness that might be felt,” and in this way God again asserted His supremacy. The greatest blow of all was reserved for the last. The worship of the Sun-god was the prevailing worship of Egypt, and human sacrifice was followed in its ritual.

“The sacrifice of the firstborn in honour of the sun-god (Osirus) was one the most notorious rites of anti-Semitic worship. The first month of the year, and the first sign of the Zodiac referred to this sacrifice, called ‘the Sacrifice of Bel’. It is to Accad, and not to Phoenicia, that we must look for the origin of human sacrifice in Western Asia. This inference is verified by two cuneiform texts in which mention is made of human sacrifice. We have clear indications in these of of the sacrifice of children, such as took place in Carthage, in Phoenicia, and in Palestine—also in the British Isles” (Trans Bib Arch, 4, page 25, taken from Trans, Victoria lust, vol 14, page 113).

This was the last and most staggering blow at their idolatry. This final plague brought down their whole system of religion at one blow, convincing both Pharaoh and the Egyptians that they had to deal with one who was above all gods, and declared His name, I AM JEHOVAH”.

This review of Israel’s history in their beginnings prepares us to look for the same analogies in their future deliverance which the Book of Revelation records, the circumstances  being in a very large measure parallel; Idolatry, as we have stated, being restored and established as the “religion of humanity.” This shows why there is a very great similarity between the plagues of the one and the judgements of the other

We have a book before us a book of 8oo pages, in which the writer labours to prove that in this Revelation we have nothing more than an imitation of the mysteries or the revelations of Ceres ( Roman goddess of agriculture). But as Paganism will again be revived, and demon gods worshipped, and a greater than Pharaoh dispute God’s title to deliver His People, the same procedure is adopted as when He first brought them out of Egypt, and blow follows blow, growing in intensity, and the very ceremonies observed common to initiation. Yea, with greater blows, and with judgements of greater intensity, will Jehovah assert His glory and His power:


Exodus 34:10 (KJV) “And He said, ‘Behold, I make a covenant: before all thy people I will do marvels, such as have not been done in all the earth, nor in any nation: and all the people among which thou art shall see the work of the Lord: for it is a terrible thing that I will do with thee.,”


Extract from The Origin of Pagan Idolatry. by the Rev George Stanley Faber, B.D, book 6, pp 642 and 643:-


“The whole machinery of the Apocalypse, from beginning to end, seems to me very plainly to have been borrowed from the machinery of the ancient Mysteries: and this id we consider the nature of the subject, was done with the very strictest attention to poetical decorum. St John himself is made to personate an aspirant about to be initiated: and, accordingly, the images presented to his mind’s eye closely resemble the pageants of the Mysteries, both in nature and in order of succession.

“The prophet first beholds a door opened in the magnificent temple of heaven: and into this he is invited to enter by the voice of one, who plays the hierophant. Here he witnesses the unsealing of a sacred book: and forthwith he is appalled by a troop of ghastly apparitions, which flit in horrid succession before his eyes.

“Among these are pre-eminently conspicuous a vast serpent, the well-known symbol of the great father; and two portentous wild beasts, which severally come up out of the sea and out of the earth.

“Such hideous figures correspond with the canine phantoms of the Orgies which seemed to rise out of the ground, and with the polymorphic images of the principal hero-god who was universally deemed the offspring of the sea.    

“Passing these terrific monsters in safety, the prophet, constantly attended by his angel-hierophant who acts the part of an interpreter, is conducted into the presence of a female, who is described as closely resembling the great mother of pagan theology.

“Like Isis, emerging from the sea and exhibiting herself to the eyes of the aspirant Apuleius, this female divinity, upborne upon the marine wild beast, appears to float upon the surface of many waters. She is said to be an open and systematical harlot; just as the mother was the declared female principle of the fecundity, and she was also propitiated by literal fornication reduced to a religious system: and, as the initiated were made to drink a prepared liquor out of a sacred goblet; so this harlot is represented as intoxicating the kings of the earth with the golden cup of her prostitution. “On her forehead the very name of MYSTERY is inscribed: and the label teaches us that, in point of character, she is the great universal mother of idolatry. “The nature of this Mystery the officiating hierophant undertakes to explain: and an important prophecy is most curiously and artfully veiled under the very language and imagery of the Orgies. The sea-born great father was ascribed a threefold state; he lived, he died, and he revived: and these changes of condition were duly exhibited in the Mysteries.

“To the sea-born wild beast is similarly ascribed a threefold state; he lives he dies and he revives While dead, he lies while floating on the mighty ocean, just like Horus or Osirus or Siva or Vishnou: when he revives, again like those kindred deities, he emerges from the waves: and, whether dead or alive, he bears seven heads and ten horns, corresponding in number with the seven ark preserved Rishis and the ten aboriginal patriarchs.

“Nor is this all: as the worshippers of the great father bore his special mark or stigma, and were distinguished by his name; so the worshippers of the maritime beast bear his mark, and are equally decorated by his appellation.

“At length however, the first or doleful part of these sacred Mysteries draws to a close, and the last or joyful part is rapidly approaching. After the prophet has beheld the enemies of God plunged into a dreadful lake or inundation of liquid fire, which corresponds with the infernal lake or deluge of the Orgies, he is introduced into a splendidly illuminated region, expressly adorned with the characteristics of that Paradise which was the ultimate scope of the ancient aspirants: while, without the holy gate of admission, are the whole multitude of the profane, dogs and sorcerers and whoremongers and murderers and idolaters and whosoever loveth and maketh a lie. “The comparison might have been drawn out to a greater length; but these hints may suffice.”

He also remarks that: “in the celebration of the mysteries, things were scenically and therefore literally exhibited” (Faber page 149 vol 3). One great fact is clearly established—for it was not many years after the writing of the Apocalypse, in the early centuries, that this book was discredited by the Fathers.

Jerome says that the Greek churches rejected it. When it first appeared it was not only attacked by the Eastern Christians, but, according to them, victoriously refuted: and it was looked upon by them as being at the best an obscure and bad poem on the SUN in spring. Epist. 123 ad Dard, quoted from Mankind: their Origin and Destiny, page 511).This is taken from a work, the purpose of which is to prove that the Apocalypse is not a Divine Revelation at all. Many have arrived at this conclusion besides this author; that not only this book, but that the whole Bible is written and constructed from the Mysteries of Paganism. Even that excellent and reverent writer (Mr Faber) asserts that the Apostle John used the ideas and phraseology of the mysteries, the basis of them being Serpent and SUN worship with the host of heaven.

“Occulus, who was a pupil of Pythagoras, says, ‘The universe considered as a whole, displays nothing to us which displays a commencement, or which foretells destruction; no one has seen it created, or increased, or improved, or deteriorated, or decreased, it is ever the same, existing in the very same way, always equal, or similar to itself!’” (Chap 1:6, Origin and Destiny, page 394). 

Further evidence is forthcoming to show that there was design in the figuration of the Constellations. This from the Babylonian tablets known as the Creation Legend it states that “some divine personage prepared the mansions…He fixed the stars. Even the Lumậsi” (which word Prof Sayce translates as meaning ‘the sheep of the Hero,’ the Hero being the Sun).

The conclusion arrived at is that the divine arranger fixed the constellations for each of the twelve months. (See Primitive Constellations, Robert Brown, Jnr, vol 2, page 1, 1900). An interesting account is also given of a recent scene on the Euphrates. It is called a prayer meeting of Star worshippers. The writer says that “to the number of about 4,000 they still survive in their native land, principally along the banks of the Euphrates. They call themselves Mandaites, possessors of the “Word,” the ‘the LIVING WORD.’”

They erect their “MISHKNA” or tabernacle “Towards midnight the Star worshippers, men and women, come slowly down to the Mishkna by the riverside…a signal is given, and a procession of priests moves to the Mishkna. One ‘deacon’ holds aloft the large wooden tau cross…The sacred book SIDRA RABBA is laid upon the altar, folded back where the liturgy of the living is divided from the ritual of the dead. The high priest takes a live pigeon,” extends his hands towards the polar star, upon which he fixes his eyes, and lets the bird fly, calling aloud, “In the name of the living one, blessed be the primitive light, the ancient light, the Divinity self-created” (Ibid, pp. 177-8).

“…Here, as so frequently, terrestrial ritual is based upon, and is a ‘pattern’ of ‘things in the heaven’” (Ibid, p 185).                                                                                                                                                                         

“The stars near the Centaur permitted the introduction of a further figure, the Wild –beast, which, originally forming part of the constellation, showed the triumph of the Sun-god  over the Beast of darkness, and over his own solar Lion” (p.241). “…Such then were the principles which obtained in the formation of the primitive constellations. Religious and Mythological ideas, already long current and venerated, were stamped upon the sky as sacred and celestial forms.”

“…The system so formulated in the Euphrates valley was accepted and adopted in Western Asia. The constellations of Israelite and Phœnician were those of Babylonian and Assyrian, even as Bệl reappeared as Baal and Istar as Ashtoreth” (Ibid, pp 240—2).

The southern heavens are a reduplication of the northern, and regarded as the watery region. In this region is Cetus, which tries to devour the child of the woman” (R Brown jnr, Law of Cosmic Order, Astrology in Apocalypse, p. 81).

“He casts forth a river, it is there on the Planisphere. It flows down below the horizon into the underworld. This Cetus I s the Beast rising out of the sea. “The beast upon whom sits the woman is Babylon,” “In the Planisphere she sits upon Hydra, the seven or many headed dragon, which issues from the Crater or Chaos. All the fowls were filled with her flesh. This is the crow devouring the Hydra” (p 91) “The Tribes were considered parallel to the Zodiacal signs” (P 113).  

“The Apocalypse is a magnificent dream of the final triumph of Christ over Antichrist, a glorious vision of the moral cosmos of God’s world, wrought out in conflict with Anarchy, and practically a warning and a consolation to the people of God in the time of their persecution” (p. 92).

Mr Maunder refers to a great astronomical revolution that took place subsequent to the first naming of the signs. “Five thousand years ago, the Zodiac was planned, with the Bull of Taurus for its leader. Aries was then the last and least important of the twelve. The next view that we get of the state of Astronomy is some 2000 years later. The Ram of Aries is now the prince of the Zodiac, Taurus has dropped to a second place, and the Zodiac itself has suffered an important change…How that revolution came about we have at present no means of knowing; but it has hitherto interposed a great barrier to our learning either form classical literature or from myths or monuments, anything trustworthy as to the true origin of the constellations, for the reason that that the sources we have been consulting are, in consequence of that revolution, as ignorant of the matter as ourselves…” (X1X. Century, Sep, 1900, No 283, p 459. Article,” The Oldest Picture Book of All”).  

All this evidence goes to show that there is more than meets the eye in this wonderful Book. To the unenlightened reader there is much that is meaningless. But when we consider  the grand scope of the Apocalypse we can understand why it should look backward to the beginning (Gen to Rev) and onward to the end; writing folly on man’s perversion of primitive truth, smiting with judgement those who will attempt to revive it; and showing that the God of heaven is high over all the gods of the heathen. THEY WILL BE UNABLE TO PROTECT THEIR WORSHIPPERS WHEN THE LIVING GOD SHALL ARISE TO SHAKE TERRIBLY THE EARTH.


The Witness of the Stars.

E.W.Bullinger Introduction.

For more than two thousand five hundred years the world was without a written revelation from God. The question is, Did God leave Himself without a witness? The question is answered very positively by the written Word that He did not.


Romans 1:19 (KJV) “Because that which may be known of God is manifest in them; for God hath shewed it unto them.”


For the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things which are made, even His eternal power and Godhead; so that they are without excuse.” But how was God known? How were His “invisible things,” i.e. His plans, His purposes, and His counsels, known since the creation of the world? We are told by the Holy Spirit in Rom 10:18. Having stated in verse 17 that “Faith cometh by hearing and hearing by the Word (the things spoken, sayings) of God,” He asks:


Romans 10:18 KJV “But I say, Have they not heard? Yes verily, their sound went into all the earth, and their words unto the ends of the world.”


And we may ask, how have they heard? The answer follows—“Their sound went into all the earth and their words their teaching, message, instruction) unto the ends of the world.” What words? what instruction? Whose message? whose teaching? There is only one answer, and that is , THE HEAVENS! This is settled by the fact that the passage is quoted from Ps 19, the first part of which is occupied with the Revelation of God written in the Heavens, and the latter part with the Revelation of God written in the Word.


Psalm 19 (KJV)

01 The heavens declare the glory of God; and the firmament sheweth His handywork.

02 Day unto day uttereth speech, and night unto night sheweth knowledge.

03 There is no speech nor language, where their voice is not heard.

04 Their line is gone out through all the earth, and their words to the end of the world. In them hath He set a tabernacle for the sun,

05 Which is as a bridegroom coming out of his chamber, and rejoiceth as a strong man to run a race.

06 His going forth is from the end of the heaven, and his circuit unto the ends of it: and there is nothing hid from the heat thereof.


07 The law of the Lord is perfect, converting the soul: the testimony of the Lord is sure, making wise the simple.

08 The statutes of the Lord are right, rejoicing the heart: the commandment of the Lord is pure, enlightening the eyes.

09 The fear of the Lord is clean, enduring for ever: the judgments of the Lord are true and righteous altogether.

10 More to be desired are they than gold, yea, than much fine gold: sweeter also than honey and the honeycomb.

11 Moreover by them is thy servant warned: and in keeping of them there is great reward.

12 Who can understand His errors? cleanse thou me from secret faults.

13 Keep back thy servant also from presumptuous sins; let them not have dominion over me: then shall I be upright, and I shall be innocent from the great transgression.

14 Let the words of my mouth, and the meditation of my heart, be acceptable in thy sight, O Lord, my strength, and my redeemer.


This is the simple explanation of this beautiful Psalm. This is why its two subjects are brought together. It has perplexed many why there should be that abrupt departure in verse 7—the fact is, there is nothing abrupt in it, and it is no departure.

It is simply the transition to the second of the two great Revelations which are thus placed in juxtaposition (to place two or more things together, especially in order to suggest a link between them or emphasize the contrast between them.)

1.      The first is the Revelation of the Creator, El, in His works,

2.      While the second is the Revelation of the Covenant Jehovah, in His word.

And it is noteworthy that while in the first half of the Psalm, El is named only once, in the latter half Jehovah is named seven times, the last being threefold (Jehovah, Rock, and Redeemer),, concluding the Psalm. Let us then turn to Psalm 19, and note first:-


The Structure of the Psalm as a whole.

A | 1-4-. The Heavens

    B | -4-6. “In them” the Sun.

A | 7—10. The Scriptures.

    B | 11—14. “In them” Thy Servant.


In the Key to the Psalms, page 17, it is pointed out that the terms employed in A and B are astronomical, while in A and B they are literary. Thus the two parts are significantly connected and united. Ver 7: Converting,” = to return, as the Sun in the heavens. “Testimony” = to repeat, hence, a witness, spoken of the sun in Psalm 89:37 (KJV) “It shall be established for ever as the moon, and as a faithful witness in heaven.”) Sure, = (faithful witness) as the sun Psalm 89:37 (KJV)

Ver 8: Enlightening,” to give light, as the sun. (Gen 1:15, 17—18 (KJV): (Isa 9:19 (KJV): (Ezekiel 32:7 (KJV).

In B (verses 11—13 KJV):- “Warned,” to make light, hence, to teach, admonish. “Keeping,” to keep, observe, as the heavens. (Ps 130: 6 KJV) “My soul waiteth for the Lord more than they that watch for the morning: I say, more than they that watch for the morning.” “Errors,” to wander, as the planets. “Keep back,” to hold back, restrain. “Have dominion over,” Spoken of the sun and moon in (Gen 1:18 KJV) “And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.” (Ps 136:8—9 KJV) 8 The sun to rule by day: for his mercy endureth for ever: 9 The moon and stars to rule by night: for his mercy endureth for ever.


Ewald and others imagine that this Psalm is made up of two fragments of separate Psalms composed at different periods and brought together by a later editor! But this is disproved not only by what has been said concerning the structure of the Psalm as a whole, and the interlacing of the astronomical and the literary terms in the two parts, but it is also shown by more minute detail in (Psalm 19 KJV), above.

Each half consists of two portions which correspond the one to the other, A answering A, and B to B. Moreover, each half, as well as each corresponding member, consists of the same number of lines; those in the first half being, by the cæsura, short, while those in the last half are long (or double).  

A | 1—4-. Eight lines |

                                 | 14 lines.           

    B | -4-6. Six lines   |


A |7—10. Eight lines    |

                                    | 14 lines.

    B | 11—14. Six lines |


If we confine ourselves to the first half of the Psalm (A and B, verses 1—6), with which we are now alone concerned, we see a still more minute proof of Divine order and perfection


The Structure of A and B.

A & B| C | 1. The heavens

          |      D | 2. Their testimony: incessant. (Pos.)

          |            E | 3. Their words inaudible. (Neg.)

          |      D | 4-.  Their testimony: universal. (Pos.)

          | C | -4-6. The heavens.


Here we have an introversion, in which the extremes (C & C) are occupied with the heavens: while the means (D, E & D) are occupied with their testimony. The following is the full expansion of the above, with original emendations which preserve the order of the Hebrew words and thus indicate the nature of the structure: The other half of the Psalm is just as perfectly arranged. For example, there are six words used (verses 7—9) to describe the fulness of the Word of God, and they are thus placed, alternatively:


C | a | The heavens.

   |      b | are telling. *

   |           c | the glory of God:

   |           c | and the work of His hands

   |      b | is setting forth

   | a | the firmament.

       D | d | Day after day

          |      e | uttereth speech,

          | d | And night after night.

          |      e | sheweth knowledge.

               E | f | There is no speech (what is articulate?)

                  |     g | and there are no words;      |

                  |                                                   | (What is audible?)

                  |     g |and without being audible,  |

                  | f | Is their voice (what is articulate?)

      D | h | Into all the earth (as created)

         |      i | is their line gone forth;

         | h | And into the ends of the world (as inhabited).

         |      i | Their sayings.

C | j | For the sun He hath set a tent (an abode) in them;

   |       k | i | and he as a bridegroom (comparison)

   |         |     m | is going forth from his canopy, (motion: sunrise)

   |         | i | he rejoiceth as a mighty one (comparison)

   |         |      m | to run his course. (Motion: its rapid course.)

   |      k | n | From the end of the heavens |

   |        |       o | is his going forth,            | egress

   |        |       o |and his revolution            |

   |        | n |unto their ends:                     | regress

   | f | and there is nothing hid from his heat (i.e. from him).


b: to cut into, or grave, hence, to write It has the two senses of our English verb tell, which means to count, and also to narrate. The first occurrence is Gen 15 :5 KJV, “Tell the stars, if thou be able to number them.” Gen 24:66 KJV, “The servant told Isaac all things that He had done.” Psalm 71:15 “My mouth shall show forth tell of, R.V.) Thy righteousness and Thy salvation all the day; for I know not the numbers (i.e. the accounts) of them,” i.e. all the particulars.

Surely there is something more referred to here than a mere wonder excited by the works of the Creator! When we read the whole passage and mark its structure, and note the words employed, we are emphatically told that the heavens contain a revelation from God; they prophesy, they show knowledge, they tell of God’s glory, and set forth His purposes and counsels. It is a remarkable fact that it is in the book of Job, which is generally allowed to be the oldest book in the Bible,*

*It is often applied to persons who are of weight and importance, hence glorious and honourable. It is used of the glory of the Lord, and of God Himself, as we use majesty of a person. (See Isa 3:8; 4:2; 11:10; 43:20. Hag 2:8. Ex 16:7; 24:17; 1 Sam 4:21; Psalm 26:8 (honour); 63:2 KJV). To set before, to set forth, to shew. First occurrence, Gen 3:2 KJV “Who told thee that thou wast naked?” Ps 97:6 “The heavens declare His righteousness”; 111:6 “He hath shewed His people the power of His works.” English idiom for “Day to day” adding or super-adding to, as in Isa 28:10 “precept to precept, line after line.” Day in addition to day, or, as we say, Day after day.). To prophesy.  Line which measures is put for the portion or heritage which is measured, as in many other places. Here, it means the measuring line has gone out to all the earth. The meaning of the passage here is, “All the earth has their sound are testimony as its heritage, and the ends of the world hear their words,” (Compare Deut 4:19 KJV, “divided.”)

if not in the world, that we have references to this Stellar Revelation. This would be at least 2,000 years before Christ. In that book the signs of the Zodiac and the names of several stars and constellations are mentioned, as being ancient and well known.


Isaiah 40:26 (R.V.) “Lift up your eyes on high, and see who hath created these, that bringeth out their host by number: He calleth them all by name, by the greatness of his might, and for that he is strong in power; not one is lacking.”


We have the same evidence in Psalm 147: 4 (R.V.) “He telleth the number of the stars; He giveth them all their names.”






The question is, Has He revealed any of these names? Have any of them been handed down to us?

The answer is Yes; and that in the Bible itself we have the names (so ancient that their meaning is a little obscure) of ASH (A Hebrew name, a name still connected with the Great Bear), and Cimah.


They occur in Job 9:9 (KJV) “Which maketh Arcturus (R.V. the Bear), Orion, and Pleiades, and the chambers of the south.” (Margin: Hebrew, Ash, Cesil, and Cimah.)


Job 38: 31—32 (R.V.)

31 “Canst thou bind the sweet influences (cluster) of [the] Pleiades, [seven stars, Heb Cimah] or loose the bands of Orion?” [Heb Cesil]

32 “Canst thou bring forth Mazzaroth [the twelve signs, the signs of the Zodiac] in his season? Or canst thou guide Arcturus with his sons?” [the Bear with her train; Heb sons].


See more: Isa 13:10. Amos 5:8. Job 38:32. 2 Kings 23: 5. The former in both versions is referred to the Twelve Signs of the Zodiac, while the latter is rendered “planets,” and in the margin (Bullinger’s Companion Bible), the twelve signs or constellations. Others are referred to by name. The sign of “Gemini” or the Twins is given as the name of a ship:


Acts 28:11 (KJV) “And after three months we departed in a ship of Alexandria, which had wintered in the isle, whose sign was Castor and Pollux.”


Most commentators agree that the constellation of “Draco,” or the Dragon (between the Great and Little bear), is referred to in:


 Job 26: 13 KJV “By His spirit He hath garnished the heavens; His hand hath formed the crooked serpent.”


Also (Isa 27:1; 43:14. KJV) In Psalm 16:6 rendered goodly. In Dan 4:2, it is rendered, “I thought it good to show,” referring to “the signs and the wonders” with which God had visited Nebuchadnezzar. It appears from this that God “Thought it good to show” by these signs written in the heavens the wonders of His purposes and counsels, and it was by His Spirit that He made it known; it was His hand that coiled the crooked serpent among the stars of heaven. Thus we see the Scriptures are not silent as to the great antiquity of the signs and constellations.

If we turn to history and tradition, we are at once met with the fact that the twelve signs are the same, both as to the meaning of their names, and as to their order in all the ancient nations of the world. The Chinese, Chaldean, and Egyptian records go back to more than 2,000 years B.C. Indeed, the Zodiacs in the Temples of Denderah and Esneh, in Egypt, are doubtless copies of Zodiacs still more ancient, which, from internal evidence, must be placed nearly 4,000 B.C. when the summer solstice was in Leo.'sword_files/image002.jpgJosephus hands down to us what he gives as the traditions of his own nation, corroborated by his reference to eight ancient Gentile authorities, whose works are lost. He Says that they all assert that “God gave the antediluvians such long life that they might perfect those things which they had invented in in astronomy.” Cassini commences his History of Astronomy by saying “It is impossible to doubt that Astronomy was invented from the beginning of the world; history, profanes as well as sacred, testifies to this truth.” Nouet, a French astronomer, infers that the Egyptian Astronomy must have arisen 5,400 B.C.!

Ancient Persian and Arabian traditions ascribe its Invention to Adam (father), Seth (second son) and Enoch (grandson) Enoch 68:1 “After this judgment they shall be astonished and irritated; for it shall be exhibited to the inhabitants of the earth.”

Josephus asserts that it originated in the family of Seth; and he says that the children of Seth, and especially Adam, Seth, and Enoch, that their revelation might not be lost as to the two coming judgements of Water and Fire, made two pillars (one of brick, and the other of stone), describing the whole of the prediction of the stars upon them, and in case the brick pillar should be destroyed by the flood, the stone would preserve the Revelation (Book 1, chapters 1—3).  This is what is doubtless meant by:


Genesis 11:4 (KJV) “And they said, Go to, let us build us a city and a tower, whose top may reach unto heaven; and let us make us a name, lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.”


The words “may reach” are in Italics.  There is nothing in this verse which relates to the height of this tower. It merely says his top with the heavens, i.e. with the pictures and stars, just as we find them in the ancient temples of Denderah and Esnėh in Egypt. (See temple ceiling on the left).  Enoch 68:1 “After this judgment they shall be astonished and irritated; for it shall be exhibited to the inhabitants of the earth.”

This tower, with its Planisphere and pictures of the sign and constellations, was to be erected like those temples were afterwards, in order to preserve the Revelation, “lest we be scattered abroad upon the face of the whole earth.”

This is corroborated by Lt Gen Chesney, well known for his learned researches and excavations among the ruins of Babylon, who, after describing his various discoveries, says, “About five miles S.W. of Hillah, the most remarkable of all the ruins, the Birs Nimroud of the Arabs, rises to a height of 153 feet above the plain from a base covering a square of 400 feet, or almost four acres. It was constructed of kiln dried bricks in seven stages to correspond with the planets to which they were dedicated: The lowermost

Mercury: Gray (or slightly brownish).

Venus: pale yellow.

Earth: mostly blue with white clouds.

Mars: mostly reddish brown,

Jupiter: orange and white bands.

Saturn: pale gold.

Uranus: pale blue.

Neptune: pale blue.


These stages were surmounted by a lofty tower, on the summit of which, we are told, were the signs of the Zodiac and other astronomical figures; thus having (as it should have been translated) a representation of the heavens, instead of a top which reached unto heaven.” This Biblical evidence carries us at once right back to the Flood, or about 2500 years B.C. The tower or temple, or both, was also called “The Seven Spheres,” according to some: and “The Seven Lights,” according to others. It is thus clear that the popular idea of its height and purpose must be abandoned, and its astronomical reference to revelation must be admitted. The tower was an attempt to preserve and hand down the antediluvian traditions (before flood); their sin was in keeping together instead of scattering themselves over the earth. General Chesney allowed the late Dean Goode to copy the passage, among other matters, from his private MS.

Another important statement is made by Dr Budge, of the British Museum He says, “It must never be forgotten that the Babylonians were a nation of stargazers, and that they kept a body of men to do nothing else but report eclipses, appearances, of the moon, sunspots, etc, etc,” “Astronomy, mixed with astrology, occupied a large number of tablets in the Babylonian libraries, and (Isa 47:13 KJV) refers to this when he says to Babylon, 


Isaiah 47:13 (KJV) “Thou art wearied in the multitude of thy counsels. Let now the astrologers, the stargazers, the monthly prognosticators, stand up, and save thee from these things that shall come upon thee.”


The largest astrological work of the Babylonians contained seventy tablets, and was compiled by the command of Sargon of Agade  thirty eight hundred years before Christ (or 3800 B.C)! It was called the ‘Illumination of Bel.’”

“Their observations were made in towers called “ziggurats.” “They built observatories in all the great cities, and reports like the above (which Dr Budge gives in full) were regularly sent to the King” “They were able to calculate eclipses, and had long lists of them.” “They found out that the sun was spotted, and they knew of comets.” “They were the inventors of the Zodiac” (?) There are fragments of two (ancient Babylonian) Planispheres in the British Museum with figures and calculations inscribed upon them. “The months were called after the signs of the Zodiac”. We may form some idea of what this “representation of the heavens” was from the fifth “Creation Tablet” now in the British Museum. It reads as follows:

Anu (the Creator) made excellent the mansions

(i.e. the celestial houses)of the great gods (twelve) in number

(i.e. the twelve signs or mansions of the sun).

The stars he placed in them. The lumasi (Groups of stars or figures) he fixed.

He arranged the year according to the bounds (i.e. the twelve signs)which he defined.

For each of the twelve months three rows of stars (i.e. constellations) he fixed.

From the day when the year issues forth unto the close,

he marked the mansions (the Zodiacal signs) of

the wandering stars (planets) to know their courses

that they might not error defect at all.”


Coming down to less ancient records: Eudoxus, an astronomer of Cnidus (403 to 350 B.C.), wrote a work on Astronomy which he called Phainomena. ANTIGONUS  GONATUS, King of Macedonia (273—239 B.C.), requested the POET ARATUS  

to put the work of EUDOXUS into the form of a poem, which he did about the year 270 B.C. ARATUS called his work Diosemeia (the Divine Signs). He was a native of Tarsus, and it is interesting for us to note that his poem was known to, and, indeed, must have been read by, the Apostle Paul, for he quotes it in his address at Athens on Mars Hill.


Acts 17:28 (KJV) “For in him we live, and move, and have our being; as certain also of your own poets have said, For we are also his offspring.”


Several translations of this poem have been made, both by CICERO and others, into Latin, and in recent times into English by E Poste, J. Lamb, and others. The following is the opening from the translation of Robert Brown, jun.:

From Zeus we lead the strain; he whom mankind

Ne’er leave unhymned: of Zeus all public ways,

All haunts of men, are full; and full the sea.

And harbours; and of Zeus all stand in need.

We are his offspring: and he, ever good and mild to man.


Gives favouring signs, and rouses us to toil.

Calling to mind life’s wants: when clods are best

For plough and mattock: when the time is ripe

For planting vines and sowing seeds, he tells,

Since He Himself hath fixed in heaven these Signs,

The stars dividing: and throughout the year

Stars he provides to indicate to man

The seasons’ course, that all things duly grow,” &c. &c.


Then ARATUS proceeds to describe and explain all the Signs and Constellations as the Greeks in his day understood, or rather misunderstood, them, after their true meaning and testimony had been forgotten. Moreover, ARATUS describes them, not as they were seen in his day, but as they were seen some 4,000 years before. The stars were not seen from Tarsus as he describes them, and he must therefore have written from a then ancient Zodiac. For notwithstanding that we speak of “fixed stars,” there is a constant, though slow, change taking place amongst them.

There is also another change taking place owing to the slow recession of the pole of the heavens (about 50 degrees in the year); so that while Alpha in the constellation of Draco was the polar star when the Zodiac was first formed, the Polar Star is now Alpha in what is called Ursa Minor. This change alone carries us back at least 5,000 years. The same movement which has changed the relative position of these two stars has also caused the constellation of the Southern Cross to become invisible in northern latitudes. When the constellations were formed the Southern Cross was visible in in N latitude 40o, and was included in their number. But, known by tradition, it had not been seen in that latitude for some twenty centuries, until voyages to the Cape of Good Hope were made. Then was seen again The Southern Cross depicted by the Patriarchs. Here lies another indisputable proof as to the antiquity of the formation of the Zodiac.

PTOLEMY (150 A.D) transmits them from HIPPARCHUS (130 B.C.) “as of unquestioned authority, unknown origin, and unsearchable antiquity.”

Sir William Drummond says that “the traditions of the Chaldean Astronomy seem the fragments of a mighty system fallen into ruins.” The word Zodiac itself is from the Greek Zudiacόg and not from Záw, to live, but form a primitive root through the Hebrew Sodi, which in Sanscrit means a way. Its etymology (the study of the origins of words or parts of words and how they have arrived at their current form and meaning) has no connection with living creatures, but denotes a way, or step, and is used of the way or path in which the sun appears to move amongst the stars in the course of a year.

To an observer on the earth the whole firmament, together with the sun, appears to revolve in a circle once in twenty four hours. But the time occupied by the stars in going around, differs from the time occupied by the sun. This difference amounts to about one twelfth part of the whole circle in each month, so that when the circle of the heavens is divided up into twelve parts, the sun appears to move each month through one of them. This path which the sun thus makes amongst the stars is called the Ecliptic. Besides this monthly difference, there is an annual difference; for at the end of twelve months the sun does not come back to exactly the same point in the sign which commenced the year, but is a little behind it. But this difference, though it occurs every year, is so small that it will take 25,579 years for the sun to complete this vast cycle, which is called The Precession of the Equinoxes; i.e. about 1 degree in every 71 years. If the sun came back to the precise point at which it began the year, each sign would correspond, always and regularly, exactly with a particular month; but, owing to this constant regression, the sun (while it goes through the whole twelve signs every year) commences the year in one sign for only about 2,131 years. In point of fact, since the

The sign of LEO and VIRGO, from the ceiling of the Portico of the

Temple of ESNEH, showing the SPHINX between, uniting the

beginning and end of the Zodiac. 

Creation the commencement of the year has changed to the extent of nearly three of the signs. When Virgil sings—“The White Bull with golden horns opens the year,” he does not record what took place in his own day. This is further proof of the antiquity of these signs. The Ecliptic, or path of the sun, it could be viewed from immediately beneath the Polar Star, would form a complete and  perfect circle, would be concentric (with common axis) with the Equator, and all the stars and the sun would appear to move in this circle, never rising or setting. To a person North or South of the Equator the stars therefore rise and set obliquely (in a way that is not direct or straightforward); while to a person on the Equator they rise and set perpendicularly, each star being twelve hours above and twelve hours below the horizon. The points where the two circles (the Ecliptic and the Equator) intersect each other are called the Equinoctial points. It is the movement of these points (which gives rise to the term “the precession of the Equinoxes.”

Each of these twelve parts (consisting each of about 30 degrees) is distinguished, not by numbers or by letters, but by pictures and names, and this, as we have seen, from the very earliest times. They are preserved to the present day (2019) in our almanacs, and we are taught their order in the familiar rhymes:-

“The Ram, the Bull, the heavenly Twins,

And next the Crab, the Lion shines,

The Virgin and the Scales;

The Scorpion, Archer, and Sea-Goat,

The Man the carries the Water-pot,

And fish with glittering scales.”

These signs have always and everywhere been preserved in this order, and have begun with ARIES. They have been known amongst all nations, and in all ages, thus proving their common origin from one source. The figures themselves are perfectly arbitrary (based on the decision of a judge). There is nothing in the groups of stars to even suggest the figures. This is the first thing which is noticed by everyone who looks at the constellations. Take for example the sign of Virgo, and look at the stars. There is nothing whatever to suggest a human form: still less is there anything to show whether that form is a man or woman. An so with all the others. The picture, therefore, is the original, and must have been drawn around or connected with certain stars, simply in order that it might be identified and associated with them; and that it might thus be remembered and handed down to posterity.

There can be no doubt, as the learned Authorities of Mazzaroth conclusively proves that these signs were afterwards identified with the twelve sons of Jacob. Joseph sees the sun an moon and eleven stars bowing down to him, He himself being the twelfth.


Genesis 37:9 (KJV) And he dreamed yet another dream, and told it his brethren, and said, “Behold, I have dreamed a dream more; and, behold, the sun and the moon and the eleven stars made obeisance to me.


The blessing of Jacob (Gen 49) and the blessing of Moses (Deut 33) both bear witness to the existence of these signs in their day (See Bereshith link above). And it is more than probable that each of the Twelve Tribes bore one of them on it standard. We read in Numbers 11: 2 (KJV) “Every man of the children of Israel shall pitch by his own standard, with the ensign of their father's house: far off about the tabernacle of the congregation shall they pitch.”


This “Standard” was the Degel on which the “Sign” (oth) was depicted. Hence it was called the “Ensign.”  Ancient Jewish authorities declare that each tribe had one of the signs as its own, and it is highly probable, even from Scripture, that four of the tribes carried its “Sign”; and that these four were placed at the four sides of the camp. If the Lion were appropriated to Judah, then the other three would be thus fixed, and would be the same four that equally divide the Zodiac at its four cardinal points. According to Numbers 2 (KJV) the camp was thus formed:-


Description: The-CampIf the reader compares the above with the blessings of Israel and Moses, and compares the meanings and descriptions given below with those blessings, the connection will be clearly seen. Levi, for example, had no standard, and he needed none, for he kept the balance of the Sanctuary” (inside the perimeter; priests), and had the charge of that brazen altar on which the atoning blood outweighed the nation’s sins.

The four great signs which thus marked the four sides of the camp, and the four quarters of the Zodiac, are the same four which form the Cherubim (the Eagle, Judah, the Scorpion’s enemy, being substituted for the Scorpion). The Cherubim thus form a compendious expression of the hope of Creation, which, from the very first, has been bound up with the Coming One, who alone should cause its groanings to cease.

But this brings us to the Signs themselves and their interpretation.                                              

These pictures were designed to preserve, expound, and perpetuate the one first great promise and prophecy of:-


Genesis 3:15 (KJV) “And I will put enmity between thee [Satan] and the woman [Israel], and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise [crush] thy head, and thou shalt bruise His heel [crucifixion].


That all hope for Man, all hope for Creation, was bound up in a coming redeemer; One who should be born of a woman; who should first suffer, and afterwards gloriously triumph; One who should be first wounded by that great enemy (Satan) who was the cause of all sin sorrow and death, but who should finally crush the head ofthat Old Serpent the Devil.”

These ancient star pictures reveal this Coming One. They set forth “the sufferings of Christ and the glory that should follow.”

Altogether there are forty eight of them, made up of twelve Signs, each sign containing three CONSTELLATIONS. These may be divided into three great books, each book containing four chapters (or Signs); and each chapter containing three sections) or Constellations).

Each book (like the four Gospels) sets forth its peculiar aspect of the Coming One; beginning with the promise of His coming, and ending with the destruction of the enemy. But where are we to begin to read this wondrous Heavenly Scroll? A circle has proverbially neither beginning nor end. In what order are we to consider these signs? In the heavens they form a never ending circle. Where is the beginning and where is the end of this circle through which the sun is constantly moving? Where are we to break into this circle? and say, This is the commencement. It is clear that unless we can determine this original staring point we can never read this wondrous book correctly. As I said, the popular beginning today is with ARIES, the Ram. But comparing this Revelation with that which was afterwards written

“in the Volume of the Book,” VIRGO is the only point where we can intelligently begin, and LEO is the only point where we can logically conclude.

Is not this what is spoken of as the unknown and insoluble mystery—“The riddle of the SPHINX?” The word “Sphinx” is from Greek and means to bind together. It was therefore designed to show where the two ends of the Zodiac where to be joined together, and where the great circle of the heavens begins and ends. The SPHINX is a figure with the head of a woman and the body of a lion! What is this but a never ceasing monitor, telling us to begin with Virgo and to end with Leo!

In the Zodiac in the Temple of Esneh, in Egypt, a Sphinx is actually placed between the Signs of Virgo and Leo, as shown in the illustration. It is a tracing from the drawing of Signor Bossi, executed on the spot, under the direction of the late Mr Edward J Cooper, in 1820.

Beginning, then, with VIRGO, let us now spread out the contents of this Heavenly Volume, so that the eye can take them in at a glance. Of course we ar greatly hindered in this, in having to use the modern Latin names which the Constellations bear today. It is exactly the same with the books of the Bible. Their order and their names, as we have them in the English Bible, are those which man has given them, copied from the Septuagint and Vulgate, and in many cases are not the Divine names according to the Hebrew Canon.

Some of these names are mistakes, others are gross perversions of the TRUTH, as proved by the pictures themselves, which are far more ancient, and have come down to us from primitive times.

After the Revelation came to be written down in the Scriptures, there was not the same need for the preservation of the Heavenly Volume. And after the nations had lost the original meaning of the pictures, they invented a meaning out of the vain imagination of the thoughts in their hearts. The Greek Mythology is an interpretation of (only some of) the signs and constellations after their true meaning had been forgotten. It is popularly believed that Bible truth is an evolution from, or development of, the ancient religions of the world. But the fact is that they themselves are a corruption and perversion of primitive truth!

Such are the contents of this wondrous book that is written in the heavens. Thus has God been speaking, emphasising, and developing His first great prophetic promise of (Gen 3:15 KJV):-


Genesis 3:15 (KJV) “And I will put enmity between thee [Satan] and the woman [Israel], and between thy seed and her seed; it shall bruise thy head, and thou shalt bruise His heel.”


Though for more than 2,500 years His people had not this Revelation written in a book as we now have it written in the Bible, they were not left in ignorance and darkness as to God’s purposes and counsels; nor were they left  without hope as to ultimate deliverance from all evil and from the Evil One {Satan].

Adam, who first heard that wondrous promise, repeated it, and gave it to his posterity as a most precious heritage—the ground of all their faith, the substance of all their hope, the object of all their desire. Seth and Enoch (Adam’s son, and Enoch grandson) took it up. Enoch, we know, prophesied of the Lord’s coming, saying, “Behold the Lord cometh with ten thousand of His saints to execute judgement upon all” (Jude 14 KJV). How could these “holy prophets, since the world began,” have recorded their prophecies better, or more effectually, or more truthfully and powerfully, than in these star pictures and their interpretation? This becomes a certainty when we remember the words of the Holy Spirit by Zacharias:- 


Luke 1:67—70 (KJV)

67 “And his father Zacharias was filled with the Holy Ghost, and prophesied, saying,”

68 “Blessed be the Lord God of Israel; for He hath visited and redeemed His people,”

69 “And hath raised up an horn of salvation for us in the house of His servant David;”



The same truth is revealed through Peter:-


Acts 3:20-21 (KJV)

20 And He shall send Jesus Christ, which before was preached unto you:”

21 “Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things, WHICH GOD HATH SPOKEN BY THE MOUTH OF ALL HIS HOLY PROPHETS SINCE THE WORLD BEGAN.”


These words have new meaning for us, if we see the things which were spoken “SINCE THE WORLD BEGAN,” thus written in the heavens, which utter speech (i.e. prophecy), and show forth this knowledge day after day, night after night, the heritage of all the earth, and their words reaching unto the ends of the world. This Revelation, coinciding as it does in all its facts and truths with that afterwards recorded “in the Volume of the Book,


1.      Must have had the same Divine origin,

2.      Must have been made known by the inspiration of the same Holy Spirit.


We now proceed to compare the two, and we shall see how they agree at every point, proving that the source and origin of this Divine Revelation is one and the same.