Samaria 21-27ten

J E Bradburn

Bible Maps - The region of Ancient Samaria at the time of Jesus became a Roman province in 6 AD & in the Old Testament times was part of the biblical Northern Kingdom of Israel. The New Testament mentions Samaria in Luke, John & Acts - ConformingToJesusMenachem’s accession to the throne in Samaria takes place during Year 39 of Uzziah just as KJV states.


2 Kings 15:17 (KJV) In the nine and thirtieth year of Azariah king of Judah began Menahem the son of Gadi to reign over Israel, and reigned ten years in Samaria.


The chronology which results from the adjustments is represented. This is all necessary to remain the absolute chronological synchronisms (the simultaneous occurrence of two or more things) with Assyria which defines the upper and lower limits of the period. These anchor points are the battle of Karkar in the time of Ahab (Year 6 Shalmanesar III = 853 B.C.) and the fall of Samaria at the end of the ninth year of Menahem’s successor, Hoshea (year 5 Shalmaneser V= 722 B.C.). The problem of this confused era are compounded by the fact that a rival line of kings to the Northern Kingdom established itself at Tirzah in opposition to Samaria, whilst Uzziah himself took a co-regent in Judea (One of two regents,)  .

So, in the years 739—737 B.C. there were four Israelite monarchs ruling from three capitals at the same time. The reason for the co-regency in Jerusalem is explained in;


2 Kings 15:5 (KJV) And the Lord smote the king, so that he was a leper unto the day of his death, and dwelt in a several house. And Jotham the king's son was over the house, judging the people of the land.”


Where we read Uzziah was struck by ‘a virulent skin disease. (Probably leprosy) which confined the king to his apartments in the palace whilst his son Jotham, acted as regent in his stead. In the thirty eighth year of Uzziah (Year 7 of his co regent Jotham = 741 B.C.) Jeroboam of Samaria died and was succeeded by his son Zechariah. His reign was short lived After six months Zechariah was murdered by Shallum of Jabesh-Gilead whilst the king was staying at Ibleam. So ended the line of Jehu in the fourth generation as the prophet Elisha had foretold.


Civil War broke out in the Northern Kingdom of israel: Shallum was himself slain by Menachem of Tirzah just one month after he has seized the throne. The leader of the revolt then sacked the town of TAPPUAH where he disembowelled all the pregnant women, because its citizens had sided with the usurper Shallum (to use something without the right to do so) So, in year 39 of Uzziah (740 B.C.), Menahem ‘son of Gadibecame king of Samaria. In the following year he placed his son Pekahiah on the throne of Tirzah as his co-regent (in year 40 Uzziah) and ruled himself from Samaria for ten years.

But the kingdom was still not secure. Pekahiah was murdered by his equerry (an officer who is the personal attendant of the British monarch or a member of the royal family) Pekah, after just two years. The assassin then ruled for a further eight years in opposition to Menachem in Samaria, with the support of the norther tribes of Naphtali, Asher, Zebulun, and Issachar. Following the death of Uzziah in 737 B.C., Pekah [Pecha] allied himself with KING REZIN of Damascus and the two campaigned against Jotham (who was now sole ruler of Judah), who thus found himself a natural ally in Menahem of Samaria.

  It was during these years of civil war that the Assyrians finally made their move south to carve out a southern empire and challenge Egyptian hegemony (control or dominating influence by one person or group, especially by one political group over society or one nation over others) in Canaan. The invitation to march south came from Menahem, who needed Assyria’s help to put an end to Pecha’s rebellion. The ‘fee’ for the military intervention was an astonishing one off payment of a 1000 talents of silver ( = three million shekels, equivalent to thirty seven tons). Bearing in mind that the slave price in those days were fifty shekels, this was a huge sum, collected by Menahem from landowners and merchants of Israel still loyal to him.     

   And so, 733 B.C, the Assyrian Emperor TIGLATH-PILESER III – the Bible calls him by his hip-pocoristicon or title Pul-arrived in northern Israel. He captured the towns of Galilee,   

Including Hazor, deporting a large percentage of the population back to Assyria. Pecha’s support in the south was utterly crushed. Pul marched on south, through the Carmel ridge onto the Sharon plain and down into Philistia where he captured Gaza on the Egyptian border. Having wreaked havoc all through norther and western Canaan, the Assyrian king returned home, leaving Menachem’s Israel and Jotham’s Judah untouched. Tiglath-pileser 111 then spent the next two years finishing off Arimathean resistance. The following spring he was besieging Damascus, which held out for a whole year before succumbing in 731 B.C. King Rezin, the last Aramean scourge of the Israelites, was executed and the whole of Syria was finally annexed into the Assyrian empire.

  Meanwhile, back in Israel, Pekah was completely isolated. He held out for two more years but then in 730 B.C. was murdered by HOSHEA, son of Elah. In731 B.C. Jotham had died in Jerusalem to be succeeded by his son AHAZ (Jehoshaphat) and, at the close of that same year, Menahem fell asleep with his ancestors’.  Leaving Hossa as the ruler in the Northern Kingdom.       

  For a while the new king of Israel, established on the throne by his Mesopotamian masters, continued to pay the annual tribute to Assyria, now under the rule of Shalmaneser V. But Hosea was also writing to Pharaoh So, asking for his help to throw off the Assyrian yoke. According to the New Chronology the senior monarch in Egypt at this time was the long reigned USERMAATRE SHOSHENK 111. The Biblical name ‘So’ is thus a hypercoristicon of Sho [shenk] (Assyrian Su[sinku]). The reality was that Shoshenk III was in no position to t campaign in Canaan because of the growing threat on his southern border from a Kushite line of Pharaohs which would soon rule Egypt in the 25th  Dynasty. Hosea was on his own.   

   Unfortunately, Shalmanesser of Assyria got wind of the plot to involve the Egyptians and decided to take matters into his own hands. In 724 B.C., he brought the Assyrian army back south and laid siege to Samaria. Hosea held out for two years before the royal capital fell in the year of Shalmanesser V’s death. It was down to his successor, SARGON II, to complete the military operation, dragging the last king of Israel off to Mesopotamia I chains, along with thousands of his Israelite subjects. The annals (a record of events arranged chronologically by year) of Sargon add considerable detail to the story of Israel’s fall. 56—60 = V (See the link) from the Kingdom to the Captivities.                                                                                            

the men of Samaria with their king were hostile to me and consorted together not to carry out their vassal obligations (somebody who gave loyalty and homage to a feudal lord and received the right to occupy the lord's land and be protected by him) or bring tribute to me.

So they fought me …I clashed with them and took as booty 27, 280 people with their chariots and their gods in whom they trusted. I incorporated 200 chariots into my army. The rest of the people I made to dwell within Assyria. I restored the city of Samaria and made it greater than before.


Image result for Rehoboam and Jeroboam imageThe ‘lost 12 tribes’ of Israel, deported in the disastrous years from 732—731 B.C., were settled in the former territory Mitanni (the Khabur river region), as well as in the land of the Medes (around Mount Sahand in former Eden) and in Assyria proper.  The town of Samaria was transformed into the capital of the Samarian governorate of the Assyrian empire with a native Assyrian governor resident in King Jeroboam II’s old palace. As part of their policy to weaken resistance to Assyrian hegemony, Sargon II imported foreigners from the north (in particular Babylon and Hamath) to settle in the empty towns of Samaria. These newcomers eventually adopted Yahweh as their deity (in monotheistic belief, God)

and are identified in the New testament with the Samaritans (somebody who came from ancient Samaria).


The Prophet's Spiritual Mission


When the Exile, monarchy, and state were annihilated; and a political and national life was no longer possible in the absence of a worldly foundation, it became necessary to build upon a spiritual one. This mission Ezekiel performed by observing the signs of the time and by deducing his doctrines from them. In conformity with the two parts of his book his personality, and his preaching, are alike twofold. The events of the past must be explained. If God has permitted His city and His Temple to be destroyed and His people to be led into exile, He has thereby betrayed no sign of impotency or weakness. He Himself has done it, and was compelled to do it, because of the sins of the people of Israel, who misunderstood His nature and His will. Nevertheless, there is no reason to despair; for God does not desire the death of the sinner, but his reformation. The Lord will remain the God of Israel, and Israel will remain His people. As soon as Israel recognizes the sovereignty of the Lord and acts accordingly, He will restore the people, in order that they may fulfil their eternal mission and that He may truly dwell in the midst of them. This, however, cannot be accomplished until every individual reforms and makes the will of the Lord his law.


The Promise to Abraham


      This is a study that keeps appearing every now and then in Christian literature since the last few hundred years. It is an important teaching from our Father, as it helps to reveal to His People their heritage, and most of all, what He set out for them to accomplish as a people. Its knowledge gives His People a unity of purpose and well-being, by knowing that the promises God made to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are true.  In unity of purpose through His Son Jesus Christ,  and realising the meaning behind these promises is strength and peace of mind. And for many of these reasons, various false ones try to tear down this knowledge of the Lost Ten Tribes and God's promises, in an attempt to create consternation against His People. I can assure the reader that some of the most God enlightened individual rulers of the past, in American and European history both, were aware of the significance of this teaching and from it gained strength for right thinking and just behaviour in helping to carry out God's Plan. For those of God's People not to be aware of their heritage is to go in the way of Esau, despising their 'birth-right' blessings from God.


Some get upset when the subject of The Ten Tribes pops up, quoting…


I Timothy 1:4. (KJV) Neither give heed to fables and endless genealogies, which minister questions, rather than godly edifying which is in faith: so do.”


About not giving 'heed' to 'fables' and 'endless genealogies'. That word 'endless' is 'aperantos' in the Greek meaning 'unfinished’, (by implication) interminable' (Strong's no.562) [so long and boring or frustrating as to seem endless], and 'fables' is 'muthos' in the Greek meaning 'a tale, fiction, myth' (Strong's no.3454). The main subject there in I Timothy is the requirement of what subject matter is to be taught in God's Church, which has declared His Word, not man's traditions. Thus, 'fables' and 'endless genealogies' are referring to some preacher getting up at the pulpit and bringing in all kinds of fictitious family analogies to teach with, instead of sticking to God's Word. The 'genealogies' God set forth in His Word are never a 'fable', or an 'endless genealogy', and any teacher that claims so is a false prophet that should not be heeded.

God's genealogies are non-fiction, finite not endless, have a purpose, and are a part of His Word. So we must choose either to listen to man's words, staying ignorant of God's Word and His Plan,  or we can choose to listen to our Father, The God of Abraham, The God of Isaac, and The God of Jacob. 

   In order to properly trace the Lost Tribes of Israel today, we must first understand God's Promises He gave us, that make up His 'Birth right' Blessings to His People, and how that promise 'seed' lineage began. This will start in Genesis, as we ask a Word of Wisdom from our Father, in Christ's Name, Amen.


Although, over the centuries, the two kingdoms had occasionally quarrelled and had gone to war with one another, the people of Israel and Judah still saw themselves as Israelites with a common heritage (something somebody is born to). Now, with the Northern Kingdom kingless, much of its population deported and an Assyrian governor resident in Samaria, the two co-regent rulers of Judah-Ahaz and Hezekiah—felt isolated and alone. The forces of the Assyrian empire were poised on Judah’s borders, ready to strike at any moment. Preparations were hastily made to shore up Jerusalem’s defences and the army enlarged for despatch to the outlying Judahite cities. Hezekiah began work on a tunnel which would divert the waters of Gihon spring into the city so that Jerusalem had access to a plentiful supply of drinking water during a prolonged siege. The tunnel survives to this day,

It wound its way through the limestone beneath the City of David for five hundred and thirty meters (1740 feet), from the spring below the stepped stone structure which supported the old royal palace south to the pool of Siloam, and terminated safely within the town walls. At the point where the two tunnelling teams met, as they worked their way from either end of the project, the workmen carved a commemorate inscription 


“The Hebrew inscription commemorating the cutting of Hezekiah’s tunnel in Jerusalem.”

See the tunnel: This is the story of how it was built. When the miners where swinging their axes, one miner towards another, and when there were only three more cubits to dig, a voice of one miner was heard calling to his comrades (for there was an echo in the rock)both from the north and from the south. On the day when the miners broke through, they struck one against the other, axe against axe, and the water flowed from the spring into the pool, 1200 cubits long. The rock above the miners’ heads was 100 cubits in height.


In his sixteenth regnal year (year 12 Hezekiah) Ahaz died and Hezekiah became sole ruler in Judah. He immediately began a series of pious reforms, dismantling the high places of worship scattered about the hills outside of Jerusalem. He overthrew the obscene Asherah poles and even smashed the bronze serpent made by Moses in 1407 B.C. at the copper mines of Punon in the Arabian basin This powerful standard became had become an object of veneration (the expression of profound respect or reverence for somebody, [Yahweh]) and Hezekiah believed that it distracted from the purity of Yahweh worship. Aided by the prophet Isaiah, the king of Judah determined that only Yahweh could save Jerusalem from destruction and no false idols must be allowed to anger Israel’s great God. He had witnessed how Yahweh had abandoned the Northern Kingdom. Jerusalem, with its holy temple, must remain unswervingly loyal (to the death) to Jehovah at the expense of all the foreign gods and fetishes to which the ordinary folk adhered. At the same time, Judah’s ruler prepared his troops for war.

  In Hezekiah’s fifteenth year the king fell ill with a serious ulcer and was on the point of death. However, with the application of a fig poultice supplied by the prophet Isaiah, Hezekiah miraculously recovered and continued to reign for a further fifteen years.  A year later, in 712 B.C. King MARDUR-APLA-IDDINA II of Babylon (biblical Merodach-Baladan) sent an ambassadorial delegation to Jerusalem to congratulate Hezekiah on his recovery. Behind this overly friendly gesture by a rather darker political agenda. The rulers of the ancient world were beginning to forge military alliances in the face of Assyria’s ever threatening expansionist policies.


The Return of the Assyrians

Eight years later (in 705 B.C.), Hezekiah learned that Sargon II of Assyria had died while campaigning in Cappadocia (central Anatolia) that spring. The body of the mighty warlord—scourge of Israel and Philistia had not been recovered from the battlefield for burial, Isaiah mocked the Assyrian ruler’s undignified end in typical prophetic fashion.


Isaiah 14: 16—19 (KJV)

16 They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, ‘Is this the man that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms;’”

17 That made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners?”

18 All the kings of the nations, even all of them, lie in glory, everyone in his own house.”

19 But thou art cast out of thy grave like an abominable branch, and as the raiment of those that are slain, thrust through with a sword, that go down to the stones of the pit; as a carcase trodden under feet.”


With the surprise defeat of the Assyrian army and the death of the king in a far off land, a political shock-wave swept across the ancient world. Great swathes of the Assyrian empire erupted in revolt. Hezekiah realised that now was his moment to seize the initiative and cast off the Assyrian yoke. He immediately led his forces down onto the coastal plains and attacked the old Philistine territory around Gaza which had remained stubbornly loyal to the Assyrian empire. He also refused to pay tribute to the Assyrian governor at Samaria. The new ruler of Nineveh—SENNACHERIB son of Sargon—was informed of the trouble going on in his southern border zone with EGYPT, but he had rebellion to take care of nearer home before he could turn his attention to the Judean revolt.

Having suppressed the uprising the uprising in Mesopotamia by defeating Marduk-apla-iddina and the allies, Sennacherib finally marched south to take care of his troublesome Judean vassal.  

  In 702 B.C. [Hezekiah’s fourteenth year of sole rule] the Assyrian army was besieging the large city of LACHISH when Sennacherib received a message of capitulation (surrender or a giving up of resistance) from Hezekiah.

Judah would surrender, accept its vassal status and make reparation (restoration of something to good condition) for the attack upon these Philistine cities which had been under Assyria’s Hegemony (control or dominating influence by one person or group, especially by one political group over society or one nation over others). The Assyrian king despatched a division of troops up into the hills, led by his chief deputy (Akkadian Rabshakeh), to negotiate surrender terms and collect heavy ransom. A payment of three hundred talents of silver, and thirty talents of gold was handed over. Jerusalem was thus spared—but Judah’s capital and its pious king had paid a heavy price for their redemption (the act of saving something or somebody from a declined, dilapidated, or corrupted state and restoring it, him, or her to a better condition) The royal coffers were empty and even the golden panelling on the great Cedar doors and jambs of Yahweh’s temple had to be stripped away in order to meet Sennacherib’s ransom.

   Even though Sennacherib had agreed to spare the Judaite capital, the Assyrian army continued to besiege Lachish. Eventually the city (Stratum IV) fell—its citizens sent back to Mesopotamia in letters. All in all the Assyrian annals record the deportation of more than two hundred thousand Judeans from Hezekiah’s cities.


The Taylor Prism [Sennacherib]

As for Hezekiah the Judean, who had not submitted to my yoke, I

besieged forty six of his fortified walled cities and surrounding smaller towns,

which were without number. Using siege ramps and by applying

battering rams, infantry attacks by mines, breeches, a siege machines,

I conquered (them all). I took out 200,150 people, young and old,

Male and female, horses, mules, donkeys, and camels, cattle, and sheep,

Without number, and counted them as the spoils of war.

[Taylor Prism, British Museum Dated 702 B.C.]


Then, quite unexpectedly, a powerful enemy appeared on the scene to challenge Sennacherib’s wholesale devastation of the southern coastal plain. News reached the king at his headquarters in Lachish that a great Egyptian army was marching out from Sinai to confront the Assyrians. Egypt was now under the rule of the Kushite 25th DYNASTY. Prince Taharka, son of Plankhy, had been appointed commander in chief of the Egyptian military forces as the representative of his aged uncle Shah Baka, ruling in Memphis. Osorkon III of Thebes also contributed his soldiers to the fight, as did Pimay of Tannis. A huge contingent of Kushite troops had already marched up from Napata [in Sudan] at the behest of king Plankhy, with Crown Prince Taharka at its head. The whole army amassed at the old city of Pi-Ramesse before sallying forth (to set out on a journey or excursion) past Migdol and across the flat desert of northern Sinai to meet the Assyrian threat head on. The battle of the two superpowers took place at Eltekah, where Sennacherib managed to inflict a crushing defeat upon Taharka. However, the triumph was short lived as the Assyrian troops, having been on campaign for several months, started to come down with both bacillary dysentery (shaped like a small rod, or consisting of small rod-shaped parts) and plague. Herodotus (Book II:14) explains this calamity as a plague of mice which devoured the bow strings of the Assyrian archers.- but it was almost certainly the bubonic plague carried by rats. The Greek god of pestilence was Apollo Smintheus- the mouse god (Covid vaccine springs to mind). Sennacherib then broke his word. Having accepted a payment to leave Hezekiah’s Jerusalem unharmed, the king of Assyria reneged (To go back on a promise or commitment) on the deal and sent his troops back up to Jerusalem. He intended to make an example of the leader of the southern revolt. An advanced guard surrounded the city, preparing for a long siege and, as the Assyrian annals put it, they ‘shut the Judean up in his royal capital like a bird in a cage’ while the main Assyrian force rested from the battle against Egypt near the town of LIBNAH. However, Sennacherib’s deceit did not go unpunished.

  One morning the king awoke one hundred and eighty five of his officers had died of the plague during the night. Sennacherib could not sustain such losses amongst his key commanders, given the large numbers of troops killed at Eltekah and from the subsequent pestilence There was nothing else for it but to retreat back to Nineveh. King Sennacherib never returned to the coastal plain of Philistia. According to later Jewish tradition, he was eventually murdered by his own sons in 681 B.C. while worshipping a plank of wood from Noah’s Ark in the temple of the state god Ashur. Ashur. Sennacherib was succeeded by his son Esarhaddon after his sibling royal assassins had fled into the mountains of Ararat [Urartu].

  The Bible explains the deaths of Sennacherib’s commanders at Libnah and the relief of the siege of Jerusalem as the act of God in protection of His loyal servant Hezekiah. In the 2 Kings 19:35 (KJV) version:


 2 Kings 19:35 (KJV) “And it came to pass that night, that the angel of the Lord went out, and smote in the camp of the Assyrians an hundred fourscore and five thousand: and when they arose early in the morning, behold, they [saw they] were all dead corpses.”


The Assyrians are struck down in the middle of the night by the angel of Yahweh.  Jerusalem is saved from capture and destruction because the king of Judah and his prophet Isaiah had purified Yahweh’s capital and removed the pagan idols introduced in previous reigns.  


The Wicked Kings


Hezekiah continued to rule for another three years before dying during his twenty ninth year (699 B.C.). He was succeeded by his son, MANASSEHone of Judah’s most notorious rulers.King Manasseh was just twelve when he came to the throne and ruled for more than half a century.

the courtyard of Yahweh’s temple and re-erected the Asherah pole in Jerusalem.


The Wicked Kings

King Manasseh was just twelve was just twelve years old when he came to the throne and ruled for more than half a century. He rebuilt the high places destroyed by Hezekiah; established new altars dedicated to Baal in the courtyard of Yahweh’s Temple, and re-erected the Asherah pole in Jerusalem. Manasseh even sacrificed his own son as a burnt offering to Moloch, the god of fire. The prophets of Judah railed against Manasseh for his worship of false idols, threatening Jerusalem with a similar fate to that which befell Samaria. 


“The image on the left indicates Isaac blessing Manasseh [left U.S.A.] Joseph’s elder son, and Ephraim; Joseph’s younger son. The right hand of Isaac is clearly shown to rest on Ephraim’s head giving precedence to Ephraim [U.K. today] (the right or need to be dealt with before somebody or something else or to be treated as more important than somebody or something else.)


But Manasseh simply silenced all opposition. The blood of many innocent people was shed in the first decades of the king’s ruleincluding that of the prophet Isaiah. Political assassination and terror ruled in Jerusalem as the warnings of Yahweh’s holy men went unheeded.

2 Kings 21:12—15 (KJV)

12 Therefore thus saith the Lord God of Israel, Behold, I am bringing such evil upon Jerusalem and Judah, that whosoever heareth of it, both his ears shall tingle.”

13 And I will stretch over Jerusalem the line of Samaria, and the plummet of the house of Ahab: and I will wipe Jerusalem as a man wipeth a dish, wiping it, and turning it upside down.”

14 And I will forsake the remnant of mine inheritance, and deliver them into the hand of their enemies; and they shall become a prey and a spoil to all their enemies;”

15 Because they have done that which was evil in my sight, and have provoked me to anger, since the day their fathers came forth out of Egypt, even unto this day.”


In Manasseh’s 29th year (670 B.C.), King ESARHADDON of Assyria conquered Egypt with the help of local Arab chieftains who supplied the camels to ferry provisions across Sinai. Many rulers from the southern states deemed to be Egypt’s allies were taken to Nineveh, along with the minor pharaohs and chieftains of Egypt’s petty kingdoms, for pro-Assyrian political ‘re-educationamong them Manasseh of Judah. After two years Jerusalem’s king was returned to his capital, remaining loyal to his new Mesopotamian masters for the last twenty five years of his long reign. Later tradition (exemplified in 2 Chronicles33 KJV) suggests that he even returned somewhat belatedly, to the worship of Yahweh, following his exile*.

*A pseudepigrapha (pseudonymous writings, especially Jewish writings ascribed to various biblical patriarchs and prophets but composed within approximately 200 years of the birth of Christ) prayer known as the Lament of Manasseh survives in both Greek and Syriac manuscripts of early Christian times. The text was probably composed by a Jew living in the era prior to the destruction of Herod’s temple in A.D 70. However, it has been suggested that the prayer is based on the reference to Manasseh’s confession of past sins referred to in (2 Chronicles 33:13 KJV).


2 Chronicles 33:13 (KJV) And prayed unto Him: and He was entreated of him, and heard his supplication, and brought him again to Jerusalem into his kingdom. Then Manasseh knew that the Lord he was God.”


Egypt had been dominated by king TAHRKA of Kush for nineteen years since he had succeeded his father PLANKHY in 690 B.C.*


    For five years the new king of Napata (ruling from Kush} had reigned in co-operation with his cousin Shaba taka, king of Egypt (son of Shaba taka). Then Taharka became sole 25th Dynasty ruler of both Kush and Egypt in his 6th regnal year following the death

of Shaba taka in 684 B.C. There were other Libyan pharaohs in Egypt (such as Shoshenk V  of Tanis and Rudamun of Thebes) but they were all subservient to the Kushite king.


In his invasion of Egypt, Esarhaddon had thus been confronted by Assyria’s old enemy—the young prince, now king, who had battled against Sennacherib at Eltekeh thirty one years earlier in 702 B.C. Esarhaddon, like his father, at first failed to take Egypt in the campaign of 674 B.C. but his second attempt, four years later, was successful, thanks to the support of the local Bedouin.

Fighting began on the sands of Sinai and continued into the marshes of the eastern delta. The conflict lasted several weeks as the Assyrian forces pushed the Egyptians back in a series of battles. Taharka fought stubbornly to save his kingdom but was eventually forced to concede the old Capital of Memphis and retreat south to Thebes and retreat to Thebes, leaving his family, including the crown prince, to be carried off to Assyria. The whole of the delta was now in foreign hands for the first time since the expulsion of the Hyksos in 1192 B.C. The Assyrian king then placed compliant petty kings in the principle cities of northern Egypt to govern this new addition to the Empire on his behalf.

  However; almost as soon as Esarhaddon had returned to Nineveh, Taharka was back on the offensive, recapturing Memphis and causing panic amongst the Assyrian king’s newly appointed vassals. Esarhaddon was marching back to Egypt in 669 B.C. when he died. Taharka thus gained valuable time whilst Esarhaddon’s successorASHURBAIPAL—secured his position. When the Assyrian’s finally returned south to overthrow Taharka and capture Thebes, Ashurbanipal’s huge army included troops from Jerusalem, led by king Manasseh. And so in, in 664 B.C. soldiers of Jerusalem took part in the devastating destruction and looting of holy Thebes. The sacred Egyptian city of Anun which had stood inviolate (not subject to change, damage, or destruction) for over a 1000 years was stripped of its treasures, never to recover its former glory. Taharka fled south into Nubia and was not seen again. Assyria was master of Egypt and all of its former territories—including the vassal states of Philistia, Israel and Judah.  

  In 644 B.C. Manasseh died and was succeeded by his son Amon, who reverted to the sinful ways of his father, worshipping idols and failing to follow the path of Yahweh’. His short reign of two years (643—642 B.C.) ended with the king’s assignation at the hands of his courtiers. But the murderers had failed to gauge the mood of the people. Jerusalem rose up against the plotters and they were all slaughtered. Amon’s son, Josiah, was then crowned king of Judah in his father’s stead. 


A Reformer King

Josiah was just eight years old when he was anointed king of Jerusalem. By the time he reached his twentieth year, the young monarch had already begun a series of major religious reforms to re-establish Yahweh as the one true God, purging Judah of all its high places, sacred poles, and graven images.


2 Chronicles 34:4—5 (KJV)

4 And they brake down the altars of Baalim in his presence; and the images, that were on high above them, he cut down; and the groves, and the carved images, and the molten images, he brake in pieces, and made dust of them, and strewed it upon the graves of them that had sacrificed unto them.”

5 “And he burnt the bones of the priests upon their altars, and cleansed Judah and Jerusalem.”


Related imageIn his (18th regnal year (624 B.C.) repair and restoration work was begun on the great temple of Yahweh in Jerusalem. In the process the high priest Hilkiah came across an ancient scroll which he identified as a copy of the Book of the Law originally written by Moses. The discovery was so significant to the pious Josiah that he personally read the scrolls contents out loud before the people of Jerusalem, assembled in the court of Yahweh’s temple.  There the congregation renewed their covenant with the God of the Ancestors and kept faith with Yahweh for the remainder of Josiah’s thirty one year reign (641—611 B.C.).    

Once again it has been indicated, that man cannot take into his own hands on how to live: Only Yahweh can show you (When will they ever learn). 

  Having been on display before the people of at the covenant renewal ceremony, the Ark of the Covenant was placed back in the Holy of Holies of the Temple.

The king ordered that it should remain there, no longer to be carried by the Levitical priests in war or ritual. The Ark of the Tablets would be mentioned only once more in scripture before disappearing from human knowledge.


A great Passover feast was then celebrated by the sacrifice of thousands of bullocks, lambs, and goats.


2 Chronicles 35:18 (KJV) And there was no Passover like to that kept in Israel from the days of Samuel the prophet; neither did all the kings of Israel keep such a Passover as Josiah kept, and the priests, and the Levites, and all Judah and Israel that were present, and the inhabitants of Jerusalem.”

The Book of the Law found by Hilkiah became the stimulus for the writing of a great historical and didactic (tending to give instruction or advice, even when it

is not welcome or not needed) narrative of the Children of Yahweh which scholars have called the Deuteronomistic History. [The beginning of all thing].

effect, the Deuteronomist (possibly the high priest Hilkiah or the king’s secretary Shaphan) made substantial editorial editions to the original Mosaic composition, written during the Sinai wanderings, before composing new sections and adding other works and oral traditions bringing the story of Hebrew Yahweh; Christ people up to date. And so the Books of DEUTERONOMY Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings were incorporated into the Tanaak (Hebrew Scriptures) by the leading religious and administrative scholars of the day.)

  All this took place in the middle years of Josiah’s reign, when Assyria continued to dominate Canaan under the forceful rule of King Ashurbanipal. But by the time the Assyrian emperor had died in 627 B.C., a new and powerful alliance was beginning to threaten Judean masters. During the reign of Ashurbanipal’s successor, SINSHARISHKUN, Babylon and Assyria were constantly at war. The conflict came to a head in 614 B.C., when king

NABOPALLASSAR of Babylon (with the help of his allies the Medes from western Iran) conquered Ashur and then, two years later Nineveh. Assyria’s great cities were left in smouldering ruins. Ashuruballit III, the last of the Assyrian ruler’s, managed to escape and regroup his forces at Harran where Abraham had once stayed. He then called for military assistance from Assyria’s old vassal and erstwhile enemy [former], Egypt. Extraordinary as it to us today, the recently crowned Pharaoh NECHO III marched north to join the battle against Babylon. Egypt’s reasons for coming to the aid of its recent oppressors remain a mystery.  Perhaps Necho realised that the rising power of Babylon posed a far greater threat to continuing Egyptian hard won sovereignty than the declining state of Assyria.

  In a time of confusing political manoeuvres a fateful decision was also made by Josiah o Jerusalem, instead of sitting back and watching the Egyptians march up the Via Maris into Syria, on their way to Assyria’s aid, the king of Judah blockaded Necho’s advance in the plain below the city of Megiddo. Necho sent messengers ahead to warn Josiah to move out of the way—his quarrel was not with Judah, he had more important matters to attend to in the north. But the Judean monarch stubbornly refused to budge. The ensuing battle cost Josiah his life, shot in the chest by an Egyptian arrow. The king of Judah was carried away in his chariot and buried in Jerusalem, to be succeeded by his son Jehoahaz in 610 B.C.   


The Fall of Jerusalem—The Dispersion [590 BC]

Jehoahaz lasted just three months. Upon his return from the north, Pharaoh Necho had the young twenty three year old arrested and taken back to Egypt. In Jehoahaz’ place the Egyptians made Eliakim, son of Josiah, king of Jerusalem. At his coronation the new ruler took the name Jehoiakim—changing the theophoric (bearing the name of a God) element in his birth name from El to Yahu [Yahweh]. Jehoahaz died in captivity

  Heavy taxes were levied on the citizens of Judah in order to pay the huge sums demanded by Necho in vassal tribute during the first few years of JEHOIAKIM’S eleven year reign. Then, in 606 B.C., the Egyptian Pharaoh was defeated at Carchemish on the upper Euphrates by Prince Nebuchadnezzar  whilst the latter’s father, Nabopalessar, lay dying in Babylon. The Egyptian army was almost as it fought a bloody retreat back through Amurru  

And Canaan to Sinai. In the following year (605 B.C.) NEBUCHHADNEZZAR II, now king and Emperor, marched his victorious army to the borders of Egypt to stake his claim on the last unconquered region of the old Assyrian empire. The king of Babylon succeeded in subjugating all the territories in Canaan recovered by Egypt during the Satie (26th Dynasty) revival under Psamtek I and Necho II.    


The Babylonians had arrived on the Biblical scene


2 Kings 24:7 (KJV) And the king of Egypt came not again any more out of his land: for the king of Babylon had taken from the river of Egypt unto the river Euphrates all that pertained to the king of Egypt.”


Judah and Jerusalem submitted (to accept somebody else's authority or will, especially reluctantly or under pressure) to Nebuchadnezzar at the behest [request] of Jerusalem’s pro-Babylonian faction—led by the prophet Jeremiah—but there were many who only grudgingly accepted their new predicament. Amongst these reluctant vassals was the king himself. Jehoiakim found the Babylonians even more oppressive than the Egyptians .  

  In the fourth regnal year (602B.C.) Nebuchadnezzar attempted to invade Egypt, but suffered a major setback—repulsed by Necho 11’s replenished forces. The Babylonians retreated back to Mesopotamia and it looked as if the tide had turned in favour of the pro Egyptian lobby in Jerusalem. Necho retook Gaza and Jehoiakim openly rebelled against Babylonian hegemony. But Judah’s independence was short lived.

 In December 599 B.C. the king of Babylon gathered a huge army of Mesopotamians, Arameans, Ammonites, and Moabites—all Israel’s old enemies—with the intention of putting an end to the Judean revolt The outcome was inevitable when the Egyptians chose not to come to Jerusalem’s rescue. The Babylonian Chronicle records what happened in its customary terse fashion (abrupt}


Year 7 in the month of Kislev.

The king of Babylonia mobilised his troops and marched to the west. He encamped against the city of Judah (i.e. Jerusalem) and, on the 2nd of Adar (16th March 598 B.C.), he captured the city and seized its king.A king of his choice he appointed there. He took its heavy tribute and carried it off to Babylon.

As Nebuchadnezzar’s great army was on its way into Southern Canaan, Jehoiakim had died, to be succeeded by his son, the eighteen year old Jehoiakin. The new king’s whole reign was spent caged up within his capital as the Babylonians laid siege to Jerusalem. Jehoiakin capitulated after three months and surrendered to the mercy of King Nebuchadnezzar. The royal family of Judah was deported to Babylon, where the Judean monarch remained in prison for thirty seven years. He was finally pardoned and released upon the death of Nebuchadnezzar and the installation of EVIL-MERODACH, in whose time [Jehoiakin] became a favourite of the court and ate at the kings table.     

  But, back in (598 B.C.), the Babylonian army had entered Jerusalem and carried off the treasures of Yahweh’s temple and the royal palace. Ten thousand men of high rank were forced marched into exile, along with military personel and skilled artisans such as metal workers. Only the poorest citizens were left behind in Judah’s capital.  Jehoiakin’s paternal uncle, Mattaniah, was made king of Jerusalem by Nebuchadnezzar, taking the throne name ZEDEKIAK.

  Zedekiah ruled for eleven years (597-587 B.C.). Almost as soon as the king of Judah was crowned, Necho II died in Egypt and was replaced by his son PSAMTEK II. Then, in (590 B.C.), Psamtek II in turn was succeeded by Pharaoh APRIES, known to the Bible as Hophra. The new 26th Dynasty Egyptian ruler immediately set out to challenge Babylonian hegemony in southern Canaan and encouraged the city state rulers of the region to rebel their Mesopotamian masters. Zedekiah bought the Egyptian propaganda and, ignoring the vehement protests of of the prophet Jeremiah, declared Judah’s independence from Babylon. He was cruelly punished for his lack of loyalty. Nebuchadnezzar returned to Jerusalem in January 589 B.C. (Zedekiah’s ninth year) and laid siege to the city for two full years. The siege was lifted briefly in 588 B.C. when Apries mounted a counter attack against the Babylonians, but failed to rescue his Judean ally. The siege resumed. In July of the following year with the population ravaged by starvation and disease, a breach was finally made in Jerusalem’s wall and the Babylonian army stormed into the city. Zedekiah fled under the cover of darkness but was captured by the pursuing Babylonian troops near Jericho. He was taken to Nebuchadnezzar who was camped at RIBLAH in Syria. There, in the summer of 587 B.C., the last in a long line of Judahite rulers was forced to witness the slaughter of his own sons before having his eyes gouged out. Zedekiah was dragged off in chains to die in Babylonian exile. 

  A month later Nebuchadnezzar’s top military commander, Nabuzaradan, arrived in Jerusalem to oversee the total destruction of the city. The Temple of Yahweh was put to the flame.  The bronze pillars and cultic furnishings were broken up and carried off.  The high priest, Zephaniah, the temple priests, the Judean military commanders and friends of the king were all rounded up and taken to Riblah where they were summarily executed. Fires were set throughout Jerusalem. The royalpalace and all the great houses in the City of David were destroyed and the city was demolished.The rest of the population was carried off into slavery. Little of value wasleft in the ruins for the few scavengers left behind. The children of Yaweh were gone from King David’s royal city.


Lamentations 1:1 (KJV) “How doth the city sit solitary, that was full of people! how is she become as a widow! she that was great among the nations, and princess among the provinces, how is she become tributary!”

Tributary (formerly, a person or nation that paid a monetary tribute to Nebuchadnezzar).

Nebuchadnezzar appointed Gedaliah, grandson of Josiah’s royal scribe Shahan, as governor in the Babylonian province of Judah, resident at Mizpah a few kilometres north of the ruined capital. He was joined there by Jeremiah the prophet. But two months later Gedaliah was murdered, along with his Babylonian officials, by Ishmael, son of Nethaniah of the royal house of David. The remaining people of Judah, living in the scattered towns  and villages, realised that retribution (something done or given to somebody as punishment or vengeance for something he or she has done) would quickly follow and so they fled southwards to Egypt, establishing colonies in the delta and Nile valley. The most famous of these settlements is on the island of Elephantine at Syene (Aswan) where some of the earliest Hebrew documents have been unearthed. Amongst the refugees was the prophet Jeremiah, who carried a great secret with him on the flight into Egypt—a secret he would take to his Egyptian grave in Tahpanhes (Tell Daphne)the Baal–Zephon of Exodus.


Exodus 14:1-5 (KJV)

1 And the Lord spake unto Moses, saying,”

2 Speak unto the children of Israel, that they turn and encamp before Pihahiroth, between Migdol and the sea, over against Baalzephon: before it shall ye encamp by the sea.”

3 For Pharaoh will say of the children of Israel, They are entangled in the land, the wilderness hath shut them in.”

4 And I will harden Pharaoh's heart, that he shall follow after them; and I will be honoured upon Pharaoh, and upon all his host; that the Egyptians may know that I am the Lord. And they did so.”

5 And it was told the king of Egypt that the people fled: and the heart of Pharaoh and of his servants was turned against the people, and they said, ‘Why have we done this, that we have let Israel go from serving us?’”


During the days of respite when the siege of Jerusalem had been lifted in 588 BC, Yahweh’s messenger had gone to Solomon’s temple and, with the help of the temple priests, removed the Ark of the Covenant and the tent of the tabernacle from their resting place in the Holy of Holies. He then took the temple scrolls and gave them to the people who were soon to be exiled to Babylon, saying that they never should forget the Lord’s precepts’ and urging t hem’ not to let the law (of Moses) depart from their hearts’. The fate of the Ark of the Tablets is disclosed in a passage from the second book of Maccabees.



2 Maccabees 2:4—8

4 These same records also tell us that Jeremiah, acting under divine guidance, commanded the Tent of the Lord's Presence and the Covenant Box to follow Him to the mountain where Moses had looked down on the land which God had promised our people.

5 When Jeremiah got to the mountain, he found a huge cave and there he hid the Tent of the Lord's Presence, the Covenant Box, and the altar of incense. Then he sealed up the entrance.”

6 Some of Jeremiah's friends tried to follow him and mark the way, but they could not find the cave.”

7 “When Jeremiah learned what they had done, he reprimanded them, saying, ‘No one must know about this place until God gathers His people together again and shows them mercy.’”

8 At that time he will reveal where these things are hidden, and the dazzling light of His presence will be seen in the cloud, as it was in the time of Moses and on the occasion when Solomon prayed that the Temple might be dedicated in holy splendour.”


Revelation 11:19 (KJV) God's temple in heaven was opened, and the Covenant Box was seen there. Then there were flashes of lightning, rumblings and peals of thunder, an earthquake, and heavy hail.”


Revelation 8:5 (KJV) Then the angel took the incense container, filled it with fire from the altar, and threw it on the earth. There were rumblings and peals of thunder, flashes of lightning, and an earthquake.


And so the Ark of the Covenant disappeared from the world as Jerusalem fell, hidden now for more than two and a half millennia in the cave of Mount Nebo which already housed the bones of Moses for more than eight hundred years. During that entire time the Israelites had dwelt in the Promised Land –first as a disparate group (describes people or things so completely unlike one another that they cannot be compared) group of tribes eking out a pastoral existence in tented villages scattered amongst the great Middle Bronze Age fortified towns of Canaan. Four centuries later they had become a nation under the leadership of three charismatic kingsSaul, David and Solomonbut then had been split asunder by pretensions to grandeur and petty dynastic rivalry.

Towards the end of the eighth century B.C. the once powerful northern Kingdom of Israel had been humbled by the Assyrians and now Judah, with its beautiful capital, had been destroyed by the might of Nebuchadnezzar’s Babylon. Yahweh’s holy shrine lay in ruins—the Israelite God no longer present. According to prophecy, seventy years would pass before some of the exiles were allowed to return (during the reign of the beneficent Persian monarch CYRUS THE GREAT) to rebuild the temple of their God. But the golden casket of Moses was not brought back to its former home.

The era of the Children of Yahweh was over. The lives of the Israelites had been changed utterly by their deportation to Mesopotamia. Generations lived and died by the waters of Babylon before a new world order was born out of the ashes of the old. Their Babylonian oppressor, in turn, fell to the Medes and Persians in 539 BC.

  By 518 BC the first stones of Yahweh’s new temple were being laid upon the ruins of Solomon’s past glory—stones upon which, one day, far into the future, the sandaled feet of a Nazarene healer and prophet would walk. The age of the Israelites was at an end and the Jewish world had begun. 



I began this story with a family or small tribe living beside a rather unassuming river (known today as the Adji Chay—‘bitter waters’) in a place called Eden

Five thousand years later the distant descendants of that family bring our story to its close—exiled from their homeland, languishing in captivity beside the waters of Babylon. The Bible (KJV) is recognised as the world’s greatest work of epic literature, not only for its scope

(Spanning hundreds of generations) but also in its vivid portrayal of humanity as seen through the eyes of one ‘chosen’ people—the Children of Yahweh. But the Old Testament,  in so many respects, does not glorify these people in the way that other documents of the ancient world do their kings and champions. The heroes of the Bible are humans with frailties and flaws. Their successes and failures are measured against their allegiance to One God—the God of the Israelites who, through time, was known by many names: Eya/Enki, El/El shaddai, Yahweh, Adonai, and simply Ya. This God Yahweh is both redeemer and executioner; a miracle worker and yet a jealous deity who puts his chosen people through terrible trials and tribulations whenever they stray from his path (which they constantly do)    

Even Yahweh’s heroes such as Moses, Joshua, and David, are sanctioned to commit what we today would regard as crimes against humanity. Life in the ancient world was bloody and cruel as different groups of human civilisation vied to control the Earth’s limited resources and, in that respect, the major personalities of the Old Testament narrative were people of their time.

But it is any of it true? That was the question at the beginning of this book. Leading archaeologists in the field had come to the conclusion that most of the Biblical story is not supported by the archaeological and textual evidence. These scholars are not anti- Bible—they simply looked at the remains from the past and saw no correlation (a relationship in which two or more things are mutual or complementary, or one thing is caused by another). In a sense they have been courageous to point out and highlight the problems which have come to the fore over the last one hundred and fifty years of research. One by one the Biblical eras came under scrutiny and were found wanting. 

  E.W. Bullinger’s Companion Bible (KJV) and especially the Marginal notes which are given in the PREFACE and the STRUCTURES. The Companion Bible is a new Edition of the English Bible. Published originally in six parts, it is now presented in one Volume, and the description which follows indicates that the work is a self-explanatory Bible designed for the general use of all English readers throughout the world. It has an amount of information (much of it hitherto inaccessible to the ordinary English reader) In its wide margins, which is not to be found in any edition of the Authorised Version extant (existing). Its position, in these respects, is unique; Including and much more.

You can read any Bible, of which there are, a great selection, many times and always find another point of view. However; if you read it with an open mind all is self-explanatory.

  Those who are serious about learning the truth, which on this earth is very rare (wheat & tares The Holy Spirit only will lead you into all truth; The End days are here and we have little time left to research; but I can assure you that Bullinger’s Companion Bible (KJV) is the only Bible to have.